Lupus Erythematosus

  • Autoimmune disorder targeting blood cells and many organs
  • Systemic manifestations: fatigue, fever, joint aches, confusion, butterfly rash on cheeks, chest pain, Raynaud phenomenon
  • Ophthalmic manifestations: cotton wool spots, flame-shaped hemorrhages, and retinal infarctions, reflecting occlusions of small retinal arteries
  • Refer patients with visual loss and lupus urgently to ophthalmologist
  • Refer patients without visual symptoms who have established diagnosis of lupus erythematosus or other rheumatologic disorder non-urgently to ophthalmologist to assess activity of disease
  • Retinal abnormalities resolve spontaneously if disease activity controlled
  • No vision loss unless large retinal areas have been infarcted